bhakti literature

Fuller likewise includes two chapters on bhakti traditions in an introductory text specifically focused on popular Hinduism within an anthropological framework. Lutgendorf provides a detailed and very useful bibliographic essay on bhakti literature (including both translations and scholarly studies), indexed according to regions and. Divided into four sections--North, South, East, and West--this anthology maps Bhakti literature from BCE to the 20th century. Including a wide range of writings-from early poems to Siva, Alvar poets, Virashaiva poets, Varkaris, and Vaishnava poetry, to Panjabi songs, Bauls of Bengal, and Bengali Shakta lyrics-the anthology roughly sketches the four geographical compass points in terms of Cited by: 2. Sep 09,  · Saint Ramananda was the link between north and south bhakti movement. LITERATURE CONTRIBUTION 1. divya prabandhan: alwars, Nalayira Divyaprabandham is a composition by Alvar saints of Tamil Nadu.

Bhakti - Hinduism - Oxford Bibliographies

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Bhakti transcends geographical, sociocultural and literary boundaries and the same can be said about bhakti literature as well. India is known for its spiritual and bhakti culture and tradition.

Whenever the balance of the universe is disturbed by external interference from any of its parts, bhakti literature, the redeemer, as the power bhakti literature eternal balancing, appears for the protection of those who are in harmony and the rectification of everything disharmonious.

This dharma, i. It is on this that the whole bhakti literature of the religion is based. The religion treats the nation as mother. The roots of nationalism can be traced to its spiritual and bhakti traditions.

In this Kaliyuga, the means attaining bhakti literature is bhakti alone. The aim of bhakti literature present paper is to outline the relevance of bhakti literature and its implications to nationalism. Of all sciences I am the spiritual science of the self, and among logicians I am the conclusive truth.

E-mail: rukminikrishna gmail. All Literature: Rights Reserved. This true education is regarded as one offering true wisdom. It is only wisdom that endows one with the sense of discrimination which in turn paves way towards having a right attitude to life. This true education is abundant in India, the land of rishis, the seers of eternal truth.

Since aeonic times, bhakti literature, India has been following bhakti literature Rishi tradition. The literature penned by them has come down bhakti literature us in the forms of the Vedas, Upanishads, epics, etc, bhakti literature. They are a repository of spiritual knowledge that has been passed on to us by the rishis for us to follow, bhakti literature. Down the ages, we have been witnessing this tradition from bhaktas like Namadeva, Tukaram, bhakti literature, Meerabai, Surdas, Kabirdas, etc.

Of the three yogas—jnana, bhakti literature and bhakti—it is bhakti alone that has led to the triumph in the lives of the aforementioned bhaktas and stands as an evidence to it. If one leafs through the Indian scriptures, one can understand that they promote and instill patriotism, bhakti literature. It is evident from all the puranas and the epics. Even the literature created by the bhaktas speaks of the greatness of the Indian culture.

Whenever there is a decline in this culture, we have been witnessing the emergence of redeemers avataras to defend this culture—the culture that emphasizes on the knowledge that is inside rather than the knowledge outside and asserts that truth is one though the learned call it by many names.

It is the inner culture that India has always stood and known for. On the contrary, we find the west stressing on the outward culture and we have been witnessing the repercussions of it, i. During the medieval period, there was a threat to and decline in the culture due to certain external forces such as the advent of Islam, bhakti literature, impact of Sufism and spread of Buddhism and Jainism.

This resulted in the emergence of an all India religious bhakti literature called the Bhakti Movement, during AD; the Bhakti Movement started in India is an effort to inculcate loving devotion and faith in God.

This movement aimed at the principle of monotheism, i. It started in the south of India and bhakti literature spread to the north of India. Many saints and devotional preachers led the Bhakti Movement in different parts of the country. In the south, bhakti literature, around 63 Nayanars or Saivite devotees organized and led the movement. They believed in the fact that true knowledge could be achieved only through selfless devotion and worship of the Supreme Bhakti literature. Also, one of the important gospels of the Nayanars and Alwars is the meaninglessness of caste bhakti literature the eyes of the lord.

The caste bhakti literature professional affiliation of the 63 Nayanars and the 12 Vaishnavite Alwars reflects the true message of Bhakti Movement. IX, No. The Bhakti Movements left an indelible mark on human beliefs and faiths. Bhakti literature was evident from the trend of elaborate rituals in places of worship, bhakti literature.

Devotional hymns in temples, bhakti literature, qawali in mosques, gurbani in gurudwaras, etc. Chanting or taking the name of God was considered essential by many saints, including the great Adi Shankaracharya. The significance of Bhakti Movement was that it could be accessed by anyone, since all it needed was to remember God with full bhakti literature and love.

The esteemed philosophical schools only changed the thoughts, but the Bhakti Movement changed the entire perspective of a human. It went beyond artificial beliefs and rituals and encouraged people to have just complete faith in the Almighty, bhakti literature. The Bhakti Movement in India gave a rich collection of literature based on devotion, spirituality, bhakti literature, faith and numerous devotional hymns and chants.

It successfully ousted the antisocial perspectives of human life and, bhakti literature, bhakti literature a strong political and social movement, cut across barriers of caste and creeds. Bhakti was compatible with the everyday worldly tasks of the common villager. Pilgrimage, the practice of austerities, and the learning of sacred texts were not necessary. The only requirement was a mind that at all times was fixed on God. Bhakti literature seek the waters of the sounding sea?

Release is theirs and theirs alone who call in every place upon the Lord of all. Why daily teach the books of righteousness?

Why roam the jungle, wander cities through? Why plague life with unstinting penance hard? Why eat no flesh, and gaze into the blue? Release is theirs and theirs alone who cry unceasing to the Lord of wisdom high. Why fast and starve, why suffer pains austere? Why climb the mountains, doing penance harsh?

Why go to bathe in waters far and near? Release is theirs and theirs alone who call at every time upon the Lord of all. It should be noted that the Bhakti Movement had only minimal effect in terms of social reform.

Its goal was otherworldly-devotion to God, and within that context, social status was bhakti literature unimportant. The Alwars and Nayanars were bhakti literature to develop a form of religious expression within the great tradition of the Brahminical gods that was accessible to all segments of the society and that was compatible with worldly pursuits, but they neither tried to change the bhakti literature nor alter the worldly pursuits.

The beginning of the 17th century saw the resurgence of the bhakti cult all over Kerala. The bhakti cult found its supreme literary expression in the works of Thunchath Ezhuthachan and Poonthanam Nambudiri, bhakti literature.

Two epic poems, the Adhyattma Ramayanam and Mahabharatham, bhakti literature, and two other works, Irupathinalu Vrittam, and Harinama Kinhanam, represent a landmark in the evolution of Malayalam language and literature and they are considered the greatest classics in Malayalam. They were composed in the form of Kilipattu Parrot songs. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, the author of the famous devotional Narayaneeyam, also lived during the period.

Another popular composer of bhakti poetry was Poonthanam Namboodiri who was a great devotee of Lord Krishna of Guruvayur. His works, Sri Krishna Karnamrtam, Jnaanappana and Santhanagopalam, have won him immortal fame as a great devotional poet. Poonthanam is his family name. He was a staunch devotee of Lord Krishna. Later in life, he got married and was blessed with a son.

It so happened that the child died on the eve of his first birth anniversary. From then on, Poonthanam became a perennial visitor to Guruvayur. Poonthanam was an illiterate in Sanskrit and so decided to express his innate feelings in chaste Malayalam. One finds Poonthanam writing about the world he saw and the world he wanted to see, bhakti literature. It is very popular among the masses. Jnanappana or the Song of Divine Wisdom is a rare treasure of transcendental knowledge and its relevance in day-to-day life is that it is written in a simple, unassuming style.

It is replete bhakti literature comments on contemporary lifestyle which seeks transient pleasure and gets caught up in hedonism, bhakti literature, failing to discriminate between the transient and the eternal.

It was a period of moral and social degradation and political violence consequent to the Portuguese rule in Kerala. Poonthanam laid new emphasis on the doctrine of bhakti as the best means of attaining bhakti literature. Spontaneously, bhakti literature came in handy for Poonthanam to preach and popularize the keertana form of bhakti.

On account of his literary skill marked by beauty of expression, simplicity of language and elegance of style, his influence on the masses has been wide and profound. While Poonthanam was an inspired Malayalam poet, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri was a profound Sanskrit scholar and also one of the greatest poets of his time. Melpathur was also a great devotee of Guruvayurappan. His mastery over the Vedas and the art of literary composition is evidenced through his compositions.

As his father was a pandit, he had the privilege of studying the scriptures in the early days of his life. Besides being a literary figure, he was a mathematical scholar too. His most important work, Prkriya-sarvawom, sets forth an axiomatic system elaborating on the classical system of Panini.

However, bhakti literature, he is most famous for his masterpiece, Narayaneeyam, a devotional composition in praise of Guruvayoorappan Sreekrishna Bhagavan that is still sung at the temple of Guruvayur. To Guruvayur also, Narayaneeyam is of utmost importance. No work of this magnitude has ever been dedicated and addressed to the deity of any other temple in India.

It offers to the devotee an opportunity to visualize and worship Mahavishnu by reading it or listening to its rendition.

It will shine and resonate in the hearts of posterity at Guruvayur.


A brief history of the Bhakti movement


bhakti literature


Bhakti Through Literature: A Study of Poonthanam and Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri’s Literary Works S Rukmini* In recent years, there has been a surge in bhakti literature and this is evident from the recent developments in Indian writing in English. Fuller likewise includes two chapters on bhakti traditions in an introductory text specifically focused on popular Hinduism within an anthropological framework. Lutgendorf provides a detailed and very useful bibliographic essay on bhakti literature (including both translations and scholarly studies), indexed according to regions and. Hawley describes the controversy and disagreements between Indian scholars, quotes Hegde's concern that "Bhakti movement was a reform" theory has been supported by "cherry-picking particular songs from a large corpus of Bhakti literature" and that if the entirety of the literature by any single author such as Basava is considered along with its.