Pierre Duhem - Wikipedia

 

duhem thesis

1. A First Look: Duhem, Quine, and the Problems of Underdetermination. The scope of the epistemic challenge arising from underdetermination is not limited only to scientific contexts, as is perhaps most readily seen in classical skeptical attacks on our knowledge more generally. The Quine-Duhem thesis is a form of the thesis of the underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence. The basic problem is that individual theoretical claims are unable to be confirmed or falsified on their own, in isolation from surrounding hypotheses. The Duhem Thesis 4 FINAL COMMENTS ON THE DUHEM THESIS It would seem that Duhem's thesis is so formulated that it escapes refutation by contemporary criticism (at least the criticism examined above). Duhem's thesis is sufficiently different from the Duhem-Quine thesis that it is not open to the charge that it is a non-sequitur to think that.


Underdetermination of Scientific Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)


Duhem was also a historian of sciencenoted for his work on the European Middle Ages. As a philosopher of scienceduhem thesis, he is remembered principally for his views on the indeterminacy of experimental criteria see Duhem-Quine thesis. Among scientists, Duhem is best known today for his work on chemical thermodynamicsand in particular for the Gibbs—Duhem and Duhem thesis equations.

His approach was strongly influenced by the early works of Josiah Willard Gibbswhich Duhem effectively explicated and promoted among French scientists.

In continuum mechanicshe is also remembered for his contribution to what is now called the Clausius—Duhem inequality. Duhem was convinced that all physical phenomena, including mechanics, electromagnetism, and chemistry, could be derived from the principles of thermodynamics. With Ernst MachDuhem shared a skepticism about the reality and usefulness of the concept of atoms, duhem thesis. Voltaire and Condorcetwho denigrated the Middle Ageshe endeavored to show that the Roman Catholic Church had helped foster Western science in one of duhem thesis most fruitful periods.

His work in this field was originally prompted by his research into the origins of staticswhere he encountered the works of medieval mathematicians and philosophers such as John BuridanNicole Oresme and Roger Baconwhose sophistication surprised him. He consequently came to regard them as the founders of modern science, having in his view anticipated many of the discoveries of Galileo Galilei and later thinkers.

Duhem popularized the concept of " saving the phenomena. Reason may be employed in two ways to establish a point: firstly, for the purpose of furnishing sufficient proof of some principle. Duhem's views on the philosophy of science are explicated in his work The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory.

Newton's duhem thesis in this regard had already been attacked by critical proof-analyses of the German logician Leibniz and then most famously by Immanuel Duhem thesisfollowing Hume 's logical critique of induction.

But the novelty of Duhem's work was his proposal that Newton's theory of universal mutual gravity flatly contradicted Kepler's Laws of planetary motion because the interplanetary mutual gravitational perturbations caused deviations from Keplerian orbits. Since no proposition can be validly logically deduced from any it contradicts, according to Duhem, Newton must not have logically deduced his law of gravitation directly from Kepler's Laws.

Duhem's name is given to the underdetermination or Duhem—Quine thesiswhich holds that for any given set of observations there duhem thesis an innumerably large number of explanations. It is, in essence, the same as Hume's critique of induction: duhem thesis three variants point at the fact that empirical evidence cannot force the choice of a theory or its revision.

Possible alternatives to induction are Duhem's instrumentalism and Popper's thesis that we learn from falsification. As popular as the Duhem—Quine thesis may be in the philosophy of sciencein reality Pierre Duhem and Willard Van Orman Quine stated very different theses. Pierre Duhem believed that experimental theory in physics is fundamentally different from fields like physiology and certain branches of chemistry.

Also Duhem's conception of theoretical group has its limits, since not all concepts are connected to each other logically. He did not include at all a priori disciplines such as logic and mathematics within these theoretical groups in physics which can be tested experimentally. Quine, on the other hand, conceived this theoretical group as a unit of a whole human knowledge, duhem thesis.

To Quine, even mathematics and logic must be revised in light of recalcitrant experience, a thesis that Duhem never held. Duhem's philosophy of science was criticized by one of his contemporaries, Abel Reyin part because of what Rey perceived as duhem thesis on the part of Duhem's Catholic faith. Duhem argues that physics is subject to certain methodological limitations that do not affect other sciences. According to this critique, an experiment in physics is not duhem thesis an observation, but rather an interpretation of observations by means of a theoretical framework.

Furthermore, no matter how well one constructs one's experiment, it is impossible to subject an isolated single hypothesis to an experimental test. Instead, it is a whole interlocking group of hypotheses, duhem thesis, background assumptions, and theories that is tested. This thesis has come to be known as confirmation holism. This inevitable holism, according to Duhem, renders crucial experiments impossible. More generally, Duhem was critical of Newton's description of the method of physics as a straightforward "deduction" from facts and observations.

In the appendix to The Aim and Structureentitled "Physics of a Believer," Duhem draws out the implications that he sees his philosophy of science as having for those who argue that there is a conflict between physics and religion.

He writes, "metaphysical and religious doctrines are judgments touching on objective reality, whereas the principles of physical theory are propositions relative to certain mathematical signs stripped of all objective existence. Since they do not have any common term, these two sorts of judgments can neither contradict nor agree with each other" p.

Nonetheless, Duhem argues that it is important for the theologian or metaphysician to have detailed knowledge of physical theory in order not to make illegitimate use of it in speculations. Articles contributed to the Catholic Encyclopedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the French physician and politician, duhem thesis, see Pierre Joseph Duhem. ParisFrance. Cabrespineduhem thesis, France. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from a small number of principles, which have for their aim to represent as simply, as completely and as exactly as possible, a duhem thesis of experimental laws.

Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, p. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved II, pp. Preface to Toward Modern ScienceVol.

New York: The Noonday Press, p. Rome: Edizioni di Estoria e Letteratura, pp. He thus filled the hiatus that had existed between Greek and Arabic science, duhem thesis, on the one extreme, and early modern science in the seventeenth-century Europe, on the other.

For the first time, the history of science was provided with a genuine sense of continuity. Cambridge University Press, p. Prelude, Galileo and his Sources. Les Origines de la statique 1. Paris: A. Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, duhem thesis.

Berggren Princeton University Press. Wherein "The oldest extant text in which the expression "save the phenomena" is only of the first century A. Duhem, Pierre To save the phenomena, duhem thesis, an essay on the idea of physical theory from Plato to Galileo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Andreas Osiander 's Ad lectorem introduction to Copernicus 's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.

The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wiener Jules Vuillemin.

University of Chicago Press, duhem thesis. The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Cambridge University Press. Mathematics, Science, and Epistemology, duhem thesis. Dijksterhuis, E. Clagett duhem thesis. Critical Problems in the History of Sciencepp. University of Wisconsin Press. Hentschel, Klaus Lowinger, Armand The Methodology of Pierre Duhem.

Columbia University Duhem thesis. Martin, R. Miller, duhem thesis, Donald G. In Gillispie, Charles ed. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Moody, Ernest A. Journal of the History of Ideas, duhem thesis. Gollino, ed. Berkeley: University of California Duhem thesis, 23— Needham, Paul Page, Meghan D, duhem thesis. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly. Retrieved 21 January Paris: Gauthier-Villars. Jaki Philosophy of science.

Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance.

Philosophers of science by era. Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans.

 

Pierre Duhem (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

 

duhem thesis

 

The Duhem Thesis 4 FINAL COMMENTS ON THE DUHEM THESIS It would seem that Duhem's thesis is so formulated that it escapes refutation by contemporary criticism (at least the criticism examined above). Duhem's thesis is sufficiently different from the Duhem-Quine thesis that it is not open to the charge that it is a non-sequitur to think that. 1. A First Look: Duhem, Quine, and the Problems of Underdetermination. The scope of the epistemic challenge arising from underdetermination is not limited only to scientific contexts, as is perhaps most readily seen in classical skeptical attacks on our knowledge more generally. The Quine-Duhem thesis is a form of the thesis of the underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence. The basic problem is that individual theoretical claims are unable to be confirmed or falsified on their own, in isolation from surrounding hypotheses.