Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research for the Third Millennium


research paper on post traumatic stress disorder

Jun 10,  · Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is the psychiatric disorder that can result from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events such as terrorist attack, violent crime and abuse, military combat, natural disasters, serious accidents or violent personal by: A shot against post-traumatic stress disorder, Scientific American, May 9, ; PTSD may have strong genetic link, study suggests, CTV News, Apr. 25, ; New research delivers hope for more accurate PTSD diagnosis and treatment, The Huffington Post, March 29, Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome research papers examine the stress disorder that consists of a host of negative symptoms experienced by an individual after exposure to a particularly stressful situation, such as combat, sexual assault, or serious injury.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Free Essay Samples & Outline |

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Post-traumatic stress is a mental disorder that faces an individual living under a depression condition after experiencing and living with a dangerous condition in their lives. Dangerous events linked with this disorder include those events threatening security of an individual and as well those leading the victim to feelings of helplessness.

This condition has a high link with military soldiers. Similarly, individuals facing unpredictable and uncontrollable events are also prone to the condition. In addition to individuals facing these conditions directly, witnesses to these traumatic events also experience the condition.

This research paper on post traumatic stress disorder inclusive of health officers, friends and as well relatives to the victim Schiraldi, The disorder has a link with fear and anger. As a result, an individual experiencing this condition is prone to anger. Consequently, anger remains as the immediate symptom of an individual under this condition.

As with any other health condition, development of this disorder differs from one individual to another. This is a research paper on the interrelation between anger and post trauma disorder Grisso, Theoretical explanation of the condition. As with any other health condition, post trauma stress disorder has its biological explanation. The condition results from an over-reactive response of adrenaline when an individual experiences a traumatic event in life.

The over-reactive response from adrenaline creates a response pattern on the brain that makes an individual a victim to the disorder, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder. These patterns recorded in the brain may persist in an individual making him over-reactive when faced by a fearful event in life Grisso, This makes a victim of post-trauma stress disorder different from a patient suffering from another mental disorder.

Apparently, due to these changes in biochemical responses of the victims, they become more prone to strong anger responses while faced by a fearing event in their lives Letschert, Apparently, as the condition has a strong link with the brain, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder, victims demonstrate some abnormalities in their hypothalamus part of the brain responsible for response and control of secretion of different hormones in the body.

A hormone imbalance is a theoretical explanation of this disorder in victims. Due to alteration of brain patterns in the victims, there is an interruption of their brain hormone levels. Catecholamine and cortisol releasing factors are in high levels in the brain. Hormones regulated by these factors are responsible for response.

Therefore, due to their high levels in the body, individuals appear over-reactive while faced by stressing events in life Taylor, On the other hand, post-trauma victims have low levels of serotonin hormone.

Similarly, as with the other highlighted factors, this hormone results due to response patterns in the brain after traumatic events, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder. This research paper on post traumatic stress disorder makes these individuals appear aggressive, anxious and as well abnormal behaviors. Nor epinephrine system has receptors responsible for stress response. Subjection of these receptor cells in the brain leads to hyperactive response behavior in individuals.

Apparently, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder, these receptor cells are responsible for maintaining memories on experiences of an individual Phillips, Consequently, victims of the disorder appear prone to nightmares and flashbacks of the trauma events experiences.

Often, victims experience low levels of awareness of their current research paper on post traumatic stress disorder. As a result, these victims have a difficulty while processing an experience and relating the experience with their current environment. As highlighted earlier, the condition arises due to brain damage, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder. Damage of the later has a great impact in human behavior as it directly influences formation of emotions in individuals.

On the other hand, according to brain study reported by National Institute of Mental Health, abnormal behaviors in these patients originate from failure of coordination of their brains. In PTSD victims, hippocampus, responsible for relating memories to their experiences, makes the individuals experience periods of flashbacks when faced by stressing situations. Due to suppression of this part of the brain, when a victim experiences a situation similar to the traumatic event, their brains develop a perception that their traumatic event is reoccurring.

Therefore, these individuals experience periods of anger due to their memories Letschert, Cortex damage of the brain affects the coordination of hormone response to stress Schiraldi, This results to maintenance of fear among these individuals and as well their wrong perception while dealing with stress stimuli in their lives.

In addition, it influences these individuals consolidation after their traumatic event. Failure of consolidation of these memories leads to an individual developing the health disorder. Lastly, fearful response of a posttraumatic disorder has an attribute to damage of amygdale that is responsible for fear control.

Symptoms of PTSD. PTSD victims experience different levels of symptoms. These symptoms appear in different categories based on their demonstration in the victim.

While understanding different classes of symptoms related with the disorder, it is important highlighting that children and teens have a difference while responding to the disorder. Among young children, they demonstrate these symptoms through bedwetting, having a clingy relationship with a parent and an adult relative, and in severe cases, they forget easily and have a difficulty while talking.

Reoccurrence symptoms; these are symptoms experienced by victims in their daily routines. Some of the common reoccurrence symptoms of the condition include; nightmares, some fearful and frightening thoughts and flashbacks of trauma event demonstrated through a raised heartbeat and ion some cases screams and profuse sweating Grisso, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder, Avoidance symptoms: these are symptoms research paper on post traumatic stress disorder by victims when relating to others in the society.

Unlike reoccurrence symptoms, avoidance symptoms lead the victims to changing their normal schedule due to traumatic event they experienced. Some of the common avoidance symptoms experienced by victims include feelings of strong guilt and emotional numbness while carrying out their activities, loss of interests in activities involving other people, experiencing trouble while reflecting on the trauma event and lastly secluding themselves from places and objects related to their trauma event Letschert, Hyperactive response symptoms: these are symptoms having a relation to individual response to daily activities taking place in their current environments.

Normally, these responses are constant among people unless triggered by an external memory of a trauma event. Post trauma disorder victims often demonstrate overactive feelings of anger and fear when faced by stressing situations.

More so, insomnia is another response experienced by these individuals. These symptoms pose challenges to victims while performing their daily routines such as sleeping and eating Taylor, Causes and risk factors accelerating the prevalence of PTSD. As highlighted earlier, the condition mostly results from traumatic experiences of individuals.

Apparently, risk factors resulting from the condition facing these patients have a reliance on the nature of the traumatic event faced. In addition, the impact of the traumatic event depends on its nature and source. Example, a human-developed traumatic event such as theft, rape and torture, have a greater negative influence on victims while compared to the other natural life events such as accidents and natural calamities.

On the other hand, as highlighted earlier, the extent at which the calamity affects the victim depends on its nature ability to control the event and as well escape it. Other than the highlighted prevalent cause of posttraumatic stress disorder, as well other significant factors contribute to occurrence of this condition among different victims.

Lastly, individuals who lack support while coping with trauma often experience high levels of PTSD. Other than, the highlighted causes and risk factors linked with the disorder, there are as well other resilience factors that play significant roles in suppressing the impact of the disorder in the victims.

Some of the resilience factors linked with the disorder include support services and rendered by friends, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder, relatives, and as well coping ability of the individual. According to research done on significance role played by resilience factors in suppressing the disorder, researchers reported that these factors give doctors an ability of preventing and diagnosing the disorder during its early stages Schiraldi, Diagnosis of PTSD.

According to reports made by National Institute of Mental Health, post trauma stress disorder affects individuals at different ages. Diagnosis of this disorder begins when a doctor talks with a patients with symptoms of PTSD. For a patient having symptoms similar with those of PSTD, he must have the following symptoms for a period of one month:.

The patient should be experiencing a couple of symptoms that appear challenging to their daily routine and limits their participation in social activities while in work and as well while in school. Lastly, for a patient to undergo diagnosis with the disorder, the patient should have at least two hyperactive symptoms such as experiences of anger and irritability while relating with others in the society Schiraldi, Treatment of the disorder. The common methods of dealing with the condition include medication and psychotherapy counseling talks with a therapist.

Treatment of PTSD aims at relieving the symptoms faced by victims and helping them cope with the trauma events in their lives. Trauma encourages victims to recall their past emotions and reactions after their first encounter with the traumatic event. In addition, treatment grants these victims a sense of control over their emotions such as anger and irritability resulting from PSTD Grisso, During the treatment process of this disorder, there are expectations on victims to explore their emotional feelings towards the traumatic event, addressing the problems resulting from the disorder and lastly developing measures of coping and working through feelings of fear and guilt from the traumatic condition.

These expectation measures aim at giving victims control and confidence of dealing with the condition Taylor, The most common therapies granted to patients include Rosen, : Family therapy:.

Consequently, relatives get a better opportunity research paper on post traumatic stress disorder understanding the emotions and experiences of the patient. Often, there is an assumption that through this therapy platform, the patient is able to work on relationship issues brought about by avoidance symptoms of the disorder Letschert, Exposure therapy:.

Through this therapy strategy, victims have the ability of dealing and controlling their fear emotions while exposed to trauma events in life. This strategy uses mental imagery and as well drawings aiming at bringing the patient to a situation similar to the traumatic event that led to the disorder. Cognitive restructuring therapy: in this therapy strategy, research paper on post traumatic stress disorder, therapists aim at helping patients in coping with feelings of guilt and as well irritability when they face bad memories of their traumatic event research paper on post traumatic stress disorder life.

During the therapy process, therapists help victims focus on their trauma event in a realistic manner other than with bad memories based on their experiences.

Lastly, during therapy treatment of the disorder, therapists use stress management training in helping their patients cope with anxiety and depressing situations in their lives. Similarly, as with cognitive therapy, stress management aids victims view their experiences in a positive perspective Schiraldi, Lastly, while treating this disorder, some medications can play a role in suppressing PTSD symptoms in a patient.


PTSD Research Paper - EssayEmpire


research paper on post traumatic stress disorder


- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a widespread concept that is rarely and difficult to understand, which affects over a million men and women, at any age, worldwide. Post-traumatic stress disorder can lead to individuals experiencing intense flashback of horror events, fear and physical reactions about the experience from this disorder. What is PTSD? Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur following the experience or witnessing of a traumatic event. A traumatic event is a life-threatening event such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or physical or sexual assault in adult or childhood. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER RESEARCH PAPER _____ A Paper Presented to Dr. Melody Palm Assemblies of God Theological Seminary _____ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for PCP Special Studies in Post-Traumatic Stress _____ Rye Bailey March 29, Bailey 2 1.